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Baldwin's most important work was in astronomy. His studies proved that the craters on the Moon were produced by the impacts of large and small asteroid-like bodies rather than volcanic in origin. Baldwin's early work culminated in his book, "The Face of the Moon" (1949), which may properly be considered the generating force behind modern research in both terrestrial impact craters and lunar surface features. He followed up his original work with a second book, "The Measure of the Moon" in 1965. Baldwin was a Fellow in the Meteoritical Society, the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada made him an Honorary Member. He was one of only two scientists who have received both the Barringer and the Leonard Medals from the Meteoritical Society. He received the G.K. Gilbert Award from the Geological Society of America and the J. Lawrence Smith Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.